WIRE ROPE GLOSSARY OF COMMON TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Frictional surface wear on the wires of a wire rope.
The additional stress that is imposed on a wire rope as a result of an increase in the load velocity.
The strength derived by totalling the individual breaking strengths of the elements of the strand or rope. This strength does not recognize the reduction in strength resulting from the angularity of the elements in the rope, or other factors that may affect efficiency.
Strands, cords and wire ropes made of special-strength wire, designed primarily for use in various aircraft industry applications.
Lay of a wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and Lang Lay.
Sum of the cross-sectional areas of all the wires either in a wire rope or in a strand.
Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire.
A.) U-shaped member of a bucket, or
B.) U-shaped portion of a socket or other fitting used on wire rope.
Basket of Socket
The conical portion of a socket into which a broomed-rope-end is inserted and then secured.
An end attachment to facilitate wire rope installation.
A loop of small rope or strand fastened to the end of a larger wire rope. Its function is to facilitate wire rope installation.
Stress that is imposed on the wires of a strand or rope by a bending or curving action.
A colloquialism descriptive of the appearance of a wire rope forced into compression. The outer strands form a cage and, at times, displace the core.
A term applied to a wire rope sheave (pulley) enclosed in side plates and fitted with some attachment such as a hook or shackle.
Boom Hoist Line
Wire rope that operates the boom hoist system of derricks, cranes, draglines, shovels, etc.
A non-operating rope or strand with end termination to support the boom.
Breaking Strength is the ultimate load at which a tensile failure occurs in the sample of wire rope being tested. (Note: The term breaking strength is synonymous with actual strength.) Minimum Acceptance Strength is that strength which is 2-1/2% lower than the catalog or nominal strength. This tolerance is used to offset variables that occur during a sample preparation and actual physical test of a wire rope. Nominal Strength is the published (catalog) strength calculated by a standard procedure that is accepted by the wire rope industry. The wire rope manufacturer designs wire rope to this strength, and the user should consider this strength when making design calculations.
(Structural Rope or Strand) The all-metallic wire rope or strand used as the catenary and suspenders on a suspension bridge.
A wire rope or strand end termination made of forged or cast steel that is designed with baskets-having adjustable bolts-for securing rope ends. There are two styles:
The closed type has a U-bolt with or without a bearing block in the U of the bolt,
The open type has two eye-bolts and a pin.
A two-part wire rope sling attached to a single-part line. The legs of the sling are spread to divide and equalize the load.
Wire rope fabricated from wires that are not coated.
Wire rope made of bronze wires.
Button Convetor Rope
Wire ropes to which buttons or discs are attached at regular intervals to move material in a trough.
A term loosely applied to wire rope, wire strand and electrical conductors.
Cable-Laid Wire Rope
A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope (e.g., 6x42 (6x6x7) tiller rope).
Cable Tool Drilling Line
The wire rope used to operate the cutting tools in the cable tool drilling method (i.e., rope drilling).
The axial member of a strand about which the wires are laid.
A short wire rope sling that forms a slip noose around an object that is to be moved or lifted.
Group, or family designation based on wire rope constructions with common strengths and weights listed under the broad designation.
A “U” shaped fitting with a pin.
Fitting for clamping two parts of wire rope to each other.
A wire rope end termination consisting of basket and bail made integral.
A machine that lays strands around a core to form rope.
Wire rope that performs two functions:
Closes a clamshell or orange peel bucket
Operates as a hoisting rope.
Circular bundle or package of wire rope that is not affixed to a reel.
Device for making a temporary grip on a wire rope.
Galvanized strand made of galvanized iron wire whose grade is common iron.
Grooved hoisting drum of tapering diameter.
Geometric design description of the wire rope's cross section. This includes the number of STRANDS, the number of WIRES per strand and the pattern of wire arrangement in each STRAND.
The stretch that occurs when the rope is loaded-it is due to the helically laid wires and strands creating a constricting action that compresses the core and generally brings all of the rope's elements into close contact.
Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in the same direction, as opposed to reverse bend.
Term applied to small sizes of wire ropes.
The axial member of a wire rope about which the strands are laid.
Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well.
Chemical decomposition of the wires in a rope through the action of moisture, acids, alkalines or other destructive agents.
Chrome-nickel steel alloys designed for increased resistance to corrosion.
Term used to describe the grooves of a SHEAVE or DRUM after these have been worn down to a point where they show an impression of a wire rope.
The unique movement of a wire rope with respect to a drum surface or sheave surface resulting from the asymmetrical load between one side of the sheave (drum) and the other. It is not dissimilar to the action of a caterpillar moving over a flat surface. It should be distinguished from slip which is yet another type of relative movement between rope and the sheave or drum surface.
Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope which permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal position.
A wire rope used to drive or force a power shovel bucket into the material that is to be handled.
Hoisting drum of uniform diameter.
In drilling, it is the end of the rotary drilling line fastened to the anchor or dead-line clamp.
The additional stress that is imposed on a wire rope as a result of a decrease in the load velocity.
In a wire rope, it is the ratio of the nominal strength to the total working load.
A line segment which passes through the center of a circle and whose end points lie on the circle. As related to wire rope it would be the diameter of a circle which circumscribes the wire rope.
Permanent bend or kink in a wire rope, caused by improper use or handling.
A.) Wire rope used for pulling excavating or drag buckets.
B.) Name applied to a specific type of excavator.
A cylindrical flanged barrel, either of uniform or tapering diameter, on which rope is wound either for operation or storage; its surface may be smooth or grooved.
Ratio of a wire rope's actual breaking strength and the aggregate strength of all individual wires tested separately-usually expressed as a percentage.
Stress limit above which permanent deformation will take place within the material.
The treatment of the end of a length of wire rope designed primarily as an aid for pulling the rope through a reeving system or tight drum opening. Unlike END TERMINATIONS, these are not designed for use as a method for making a permanent connection.
The treatment at the end or ends of a length of wire rope, usually made by forming an eye or attaching a fitting and designed to be the permanent end termination on the wire rope that connects it to the load.
Rope with ends spliced together to form a single continuous loop.
The sheave at the center of a rope system over which no rope movement occurs other than equalizing movement. It is frequently overlooked during crane inspections, with disastrous consequences. It can be a source of severe degradation.
Special type of fitting used as a component part of some wire rope slings.
Extra Improved Plow, Steel Rope
A specific wire rope grade.
Extra High Strength Strand
A grade of galvanized or bright strand.
Eye or Eye Splice
A loop, with or without a thimble, formed at the end of a wire rope.
Factor of Safety
In the wire rope industry, this term was originally used to express the ratio of nominal strength to the total working load. The term is no longer used since it implies a permanent existence for this ratio when, in actuality, the rope strength begins to reduce the moment it is placed in service. See DESIGN FACTOR.
As applied to wire rope, the term usually refers to the process of progressive fracture resulting from the bending of individual wires. These fractures may and usually do occur at bending stresses well below the ultimate strength of the material; it is not an abnormality although it may be accelerated due to conditions in the rope such as rust or lack of lubrication.
Cord or rope of vegetable or synthetic fiber used as the axial member of a strand.
Cord or rope of vegetable or synthetic fiber used as the axial member of a rope.
Small spacer wires within a strand which help position and support other wires. Also the name for the type of strand pattern utilizing filler wires.
Any functional accessory attached to a wire rope.
Wire rope that is made of a series of parallel, alternating right-lay and left-lay ropes, sewn together with relatively soft wires.
Flattened Strand Rope
Wire rope that is made either of oval or triangular shaped strands in order to form a flattened rope surface.
That angle between the rope's position at the extreme end wrap on a drum, and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave. See DRUM and SHEAVE.
Zinc coating for corrosion resistance.
Rope made of galvanized wire.
Strand made of galvanized wire.
Wire coated with zinc.
Wire rope or strand classification by strength and/or type of material, i.e., Improved Plow Steel, Type 302 Stainless, Phosphor Bronze, etc. It does not imply a strength of the basic wire used to meet the rope's nominal strength.
Classification of wire rope by the wire's metallic composition and the rope's nominal strength.
An endless circle or ring fabricated from one continuous length of strand or rope.
Drum with a grooved surface that accommodates the rope &/or wire rope and guides it for proper winding.
Depressions-helical or parallel-in the surface of a sheave or drum that are shaped to position and support the rope.
Guard Rail Cable
A galvanizad wire rope or strand erected along a highway.
Strand or rope, usually galvanized, for stabilizing or maintaining a structure in fixed position.
Wire Rope used for pulling movable devices such as cars that roll on a track.
Wire rope, usually galvanized, used for towing or mooring marine vessels.
High Strength Strand
Grade of galvanized or bright strand.
Wire rope on a clamshell or orange peel bucket that suspends the bucket while the closing line is released to dump its load.
Sheave or roller used to guide or support a rope.
Improved Plow Steel Rope
A specific grade of wire rope.
Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)
A wire rope used as the axial member of a larger wire rope.
All wires of a strand except the outer or cover wires.
Wire rope or strand having all of its wire components coated with lubricants.
A specific grade of wire rope.
Independent Wire Rope Core.
A unique deformation of a wire rope caused by a loop of rope being pulled down tight. It represents irreparable damage to and an indeterminate loss of strength in the rope.
A.) External wood covering on a reel to protect the wire rope or strand.
B.) The grooved shell of a drum.
A.)The manner in which the wires in a strand or the strands in a rope are helically laid, or B.) the distance measured parallel to the axis of the rope (or strand) in which a strand (or wire) makes one complete helical convolution about the core (or center). In this connection, lay is also referred to as LAY LENGTH or PITCH.
Right Lay: The direction of strand or wire helix corresponding to that of a right hand screw thread.
Left Lay: The direction of strand or wire helix corresponding to that of a left hand screw thread.
Cross Lay: Rope or strand in which one or more operations are performed in opposite directions. A multiple operation product is described according to the direction of the outside layer.
Regular Lay: The type of rope wherein the lay of the wires in the strand is in the opposite direction to the lay of the strand in the rope. The crowns of the wires appear to be parallel to the axis of the rope.
Lang Lay: The type of rope in which the lay of the wires in the strand is in the same direction as the lay of the strand in the rope. The crowns of the wires appear to be at an angle to the axis of the rope.
Alternate Lay: Lay of a wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and lang lay.
Alberts Lay: An old, rarely used term for lang lay.
Reverse Lay: Another term for alternate lay.
Spring Lay: This is not definable as a unique lay; more properly, it refers to a specific wire rope construction.
That part of a rope tackle leading from the first, or fast, sheave to the drum.
Synonymous term for WIRE ROPE.
Locked Coil Strand
Smooth-surfaced strand ordinarily constructed of shaped, outer wires arranged in concentric layers around a center of round wires.
A 360° change of direction in the course of a wire rope which when pulled down tight will result in a kink.
Tapered steel pin used in splicing wire rope.
A brittle micro-constituent of steel formed when the steel is heated above its critical temperature and rapidly quenched. This occurs in wire rope as a result of frictional heating and the mass cooling effect of the cold metal beneath. Martensite cracks very easily, and such cracks can propagate from the surface through the entire wire.
Mild Plow Steel Rope
A specific grade of wire rope.
Sometimes called IRONING, it is the progressive movement of strands along the axis of the rope, resulting from the rope's movement through a restricted passage such as a tight sheave.
Modulus of Elasticity
Mathematical quantity expressing the ratio, within the elastic limit, between a definite range of unit stress on a wire rope and the corresponding unit elongation.
Galvanized wire rope, usually 6x12, 6x24, or 6x37 class for holding ships to dock.
Rope or strand that is not preformed. See PREFORMED STRANDS and PREFORMED ROPE.
Non-Rotating Wire Rope
Term, now abandoned, referring to 19x7 or 18x7 rope.
Non-Spinning Wire Rope
See ROTATION RESISTANT ROPE.
A wire rope fitting that consists of a basket and two ears with a pin. See FITTING.
Outer layer of wires.
Permanent distortion resulting from cold plastic metal deformation of the outer wires. Usually caused by pounding against a sheave or machine member, or by heavy operating pressure between rope and sheave, rope and drum, or rope and adjacent wrap of rope.
Plow Steel Rope
A specific grade of wire rope.
A recognized standard of testing the galvanized coating on a wire.
Strand in which the wires are permanently formed during fabrication into the helical shape they will assume in the strand.
Performed Wire Rope
Wire rope in which the strands are permanently formed during fabrication into the helical shape they will assume in the wire rope.
An incorrect reference to PRESTRETCHING.
Subjecting a wire rope or strand to tension prior to its intended application, for an extent and over a period of time sufficient to remove most of the CONSTRUCTIONAL STRETCH.
As used in the rope industry, this term has virtually the same meaning as ELASTIC LIMIT. It is the end of the load versus elongation relationship at which an increase in load no longer produces a proportional increase in elongation and from which point recovery to the rope's original length is unlikely.
The load which a new wire rope or wire rope sling may handle under given operating conditions and at an assumed DESIGN FACTOR.
A flanged spool on which wire rope or strand is wound for storage or shipment.
To pass a rope through a hole or around a system of sheaves.
The strength of a rope exclusive of the outer wires.
Reeving a wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in opposing directions.
Relatively small-diameter cylinders, or wide-faced sheaves, that serve as support for ropes.
On a rotary drilling rig, it is the wire rope used for raising and lowering the drill pipe, as well as for controlling its position.
A wire rope consisting of an inner layer of strand laid in one direction covered by a layer of strand laid in the opposite direction. This has the effect of counteracting torque by reducing the tendency of finished rope to rotate.
Round-Wire Track Strand
Strand composed of concentric layers of round WIRES, used as TRACK CABLE.
See DESIGN FACTOR.
Safe Working Load
This term is potentially misleading and is, therefore, in disfavor. Essentially, it refers to that portion of the nominal rope strength that can be applied either to move or sustain a load. It is misleading because it is only valid when the rope is new and equipment is in good condition. See RATED CAPACITY.
In well drilling, it is the wire rope that operates the bailer that removes water and drill cuttings.
The name for a type of strand pattern that has two adjacent layers laid in one operation with any number of uniform sized wires in the outer layer, and with the same number of uniform but smaller sized wires in the inner layer.
To make a secure binding at the end of a wire rope or strand with SEIZING WIRE or SEIZING STRAND.
Small strand usuall of 7 wires made of soft annealed wire.
Soft annealed wire.
To cover the surface of a wire rope or strand with a fiber cord or wire wrapping.
A “U” or anchor-shaped fitting with pin.
A grooved pulley for wire rope.
Sling, Wire Rope
An assembly fabricated from WIRE ROPE which connects the load to the lifting device.
A flexible sling, the body of which is made up of two or more WIRE ROPES braided together. See SLINGS.
Drum with a plain, ungrooved surface. See DRUM.
Generic name for a type of wire rope fitting.
An abandoned term referring to a ROTATION-RESISTANT rope of the 8 x 19 classification.
A continuous helical groove that follows a path on and around a drum face, similar to a screw thread. See DRUM.
Making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands back into the main body of the rope.
Formation of loops or eyes in a rope by means of mechanical attachments pressed onto the rope.
Joining of two rope ends so as to form a long or short splice in two pieces of rope.
Stainless Steel Rope
Wire rope made up of corrosion resistant steel wires.
Steel Clad Rope
Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire.
Stone Sawing Strand
A plurality of round or shaped wires helically laid about an axis.
Usually a 3-wire strand used in quarrying stone or slate.
A machine that lays wires together helically to form a strand.
The force or resistance within any solid body against alteration of form; in the case of a solid wire it would be the load on the rope divided by the cross-section area of the wire.
The elongation of a wire rope under load.
Fitting into which wire rope can be inserted and then permanently attached by cold pressing (swaging) the shank that encloses the rope.
A small wire rope used to prevent rotation of a load.
Tapering & Welding
Reducing the diameter of the end of a wire rope and welding it to facilitate reeving.
Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye, or fastening loop of a wire rope.
Tiller Rope Cable
A very flexible operating rope, commonly made by laying six 6x7 ropes around a fiber core resulting in a 6x42 construction. As well as, a 3/32 inch 7x7 galvanized cable coated to an outside diameter of 3/16 inch with vinyl or nylon.
Wire coated with tin.
On an aerial system it is the suspended wire rope or strand along which the carriers move.
On an aerial conveyor or haulage system it is the wire rope that propels the carriages.
Traction Steel Rope
A specific grade of wire rope.
An aerial conveying system for transporting multiple loads.
Synonymous with the term WRAP; it signifies a single wrap around a drum.
Device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. It consists of a barrel and right and left hand thread bolts.
The name for a type of strand pattern that is characterized by having one of its wire layers (usually the outer) made up of an arrangement of alternately large and small wires.
Wire rope fittings wherein the rope end is secured by a wedge.
A single, continuous length of metal, with a circular cross-section that is cold-drawn from rod.
A plurality of wire strands helically laid about an axis.
Wire Strand Core (WSC)
A wire strand used as the axial member of a wire rope.